Navele de tip vrachier sunt caii de povară ai mărilor, efectuând transportul mărfurilor esențiale, fără de care societatea modernă nu ar putea funcționa. Sectorul transportului mărfurilor în vrac oferă servicii la un cost eficient. Transportul de mărfuri uscate în vrac, în virtutea varietății de nave folosite, bunurilor transportate și porturilor vizitate, impun o cerere de aptitudini considerabile, experiență și determinarea celor ce operează aceste nave.
Volumul menționat în titlu îl găsim la bordul navelor de tip vrachier și încearcă să adune laolaltă toate cunoștințele de specialitate necesare unui comandant și ofițerilor lui pentru a opera eficient și în siguranță un asemenea tip de navă. Acesta cuprinde esența unui randament economic dar și conștientizarea tuturor factorilor ce contribuie la operarea optimă a mărfurilor și, astfel, la un voiaj de succes.
Având în vedere că în meseria noastră comunicarea în limba română se termină la departure gate, consider că e impetuos necesar ca fiecare dintre noi să se familiarizeze cu vocabularul tehnic al limbii engleze. Prin urmare, voi continua prezentarea succintă unora dintre sursele de informații legate de mărfuri, diferite planuri și publicații necesare la bord pentru exploatarea în siguranță a navei. Sursa informațiilor o constituie tocmai acest ghid.
Cargo book: will include any information which could make a repeat voyage easier, such as the principal details of each cargo with disposition of cargo (stowage plan), detailed list of bunkers and other weights aboard, departure and arrival drafts, dock water density, draft limitations, description of loading and discharging procedures, amount of cargo on conveyor belt, suggested trimming quantities and holds which were used for trimming, requirements of stevedores, reliability of shore weights, availability and price of fresh water, arrangements for access, and so on.
Cargo documents: Copies of all cargo documents given to the ship, or presented for signature, should be retained.
Damage records-damage to ship or cargo: full records of damage which occurs to ship or to cargo during loading or discharge.
Trim, stability and stress calculations: a record of the calculations, with weights and assumed positions, should be kept, along with the values obtained from the calculations. Full details of the eventual departure condition on completion of loading should also be retained and filed for later inspection.
Draft survey calculations: when an independent surveyor is appointed to make a draft survey, a copy of the results of his survey should be kept aboard along with the ship’s own calculations, which should be done independently.
Chain register – cargo gear register: ship’s lifting gear record book – derricks; cranes for handling of stores; lifting gear used in engine room. All such items of of equipment should be properly tested, certified, marked and maintained.
BC Code: promote the safe stowage and shipment of bulk cargoes by highlighting the dangers associated with the shipment of certain types of bulk cargoes; giving guidance on the procedure to be adopted when the shipment of bulk cargoes is proposed. A useful source of stowage factors and properties of bulk cargoes.
IMDG: lists properties of a considerable number of hazardous cargoes and states the conditions under which they can be safely carried.
Approved stability booklet and loading manual for the ship: essential informations for the planning the safe loading and carriage of bulk cargoes.
Tank calibration tables: shows for each of the ship’s tanks the volume of liquid which coresponds to the sounding obtained. Ballast tanks; fresh water tanks; engine water; fuel oil and diesel oil; ballast holds – only for untrimmed condition. Additional tables will provide corrections for trimmed situation.
Ship’s plans or drawings
Pumping plan: shows the layout of the ship’s bilge, ballast and bunker pumping arrangements and of the air and sounding pipes for the bilge, ballast and bunker compartments, the positions of all the suctions in double bottom, topside and peak tanks and in hold bilges, and the pipelines connecting them with the pumps in the engine room, the locations of all the air-pipe outlets and the sounding pipe caps, as well as the positions of the ballast lines connecting the topside tanks to the engine room, the layout of piping and the positions of suctions in the double bottom tanks, lines, valves and pumps serving machinery spaces and domestic services, plan of the bilge and ballast pumping arrangements in the engine room.
Sounding and air-pipe plan shows the position of every sounding pipe and air-pipe.
Cargo ventilation plan: shows the locations of hold ventilator cowls, of ventilator trunks and of ventilator flaps for opening or closing the trunks. It shows whether air can be delivered through grilles at the bottom of the hold or only at the top. If ventilator fans are fitted, their positions are shown and the capacity of each should be stated. The plan should show the number of air changes per hour which can be achieved in each hold, when empty, if the fans are running.
Construction plans: provide details of the steelwork used in the construction of the ship and are useful when damage has to be described or repairs must be specified. The dimensions and plate thicknesses are shown for decks and internal members such as frames, floors, beams and brackets.
Midship section plan: shows the transverse cross-section at her mid length. Position and dimensions of the bilge keel and the shape of the turn of the bilge can be seen on the plan.
Docking plan: among other matters, provides the information and measurements required by the drydock operators to enable them to place the blocks and sidebeds correctly.
Other plans: bulkhead plans, tanktop plans useful when damage, repairs or modifications to these features are contemplated and vessels which are equipped with lashing points in the hold have plans to show their positions.
Fire protection ans safety equipment plans located in several prominent positions throughout accommodation, contains position of every item of firefighting and life equipment, with brief details of sizes and types of hoses, hydrants, fire extinguishers, fire doors, fireman’s outfits, breathing apparatus, safety lockers, lifebuoys and attachments, lifeboats and liferafts, adders, emergency lighting, remote machinery stops and so on. The plans may be divided into two parts, with a fire control plan and an arrangement of lifesaving equipment.